How To Determine Hybridization

How To Determine Hybridization

Hybridorbitals 01
Th ed.

New York: 2007.23- 352 OrbitalsINTRODUCTION:Developed by Linus Pauling, the concept of hybrid orbitals was a theorycreated to explain the structures of molecules in space.

The theory consists ofcombining atomic orbitals (ex: s,p,d,f) into new hybrid orbitals (ex: sp, sp2, sp3).VOCABULARY:1.Atomic orbital: an expected region of electron density around an atom basedon a solution to the Schršdinger wave function.

1Example:
The valence electrons of
Be will most probably be
found in the shaded areas.2.Hybridization: the combining of solutions to the Schrodinger wave functionfor atomic orbitals to produce hybrid orbitals.

Note: the total number oforbitals available for forming bonds does not changea new set is simplyformed.

23.Hybrid orbital: an orbital created by the combination of atomic orbitals inthe same atom.1.
Worksheet hybridization
is called the hybridized molecular orbitalslecular orbitals with defined shapes and energy levels.In organic chemistry, we hybridizationthree hybridization.

In this twotwo orbitals remain.

1.Lewis structures help to determine how many equivalent molecular

a.

How many atoms are bonded many lone pairs of e are on many equivalent molecular orbitals e.

Fill in the ef.Draw the hybrid orbitals for NHg.

Fill in the eh.Compare the Lewis structure witatomic orbitals E molecular orbitals E 2.Complete the Lewis structure of carbon dioxide, CO

a
how to determine hybridization
Sp - University Of Illinois At Urbana-champaign
4. For the compound below, determine the hybridization, bond angles and lone pair e-at each numbered atom. 5. For the compound below determine (chem.ucla.edu)
Chapter 9 - Hybridization
For each pair, determine the type or types of hybridization that could lead to hybrid orbitals at the specified angle. Problems from Textbook. (butane.chem.illinois.edu)
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
How Do You Determine Suitable Hybridization Times? . . . 426 What Are the Functions of the Components of a Typical (foothill.edu)
.

How many atoms are bonded many lone pairs of e are on many equivalent molecular orbitals e.

Fill in the ef.Draw the hybrid orbitals for C in COg.Fill in the eh.Compare the Lewis structure wit3.Repeat this for the oxygen in CO

a.

How many atoms are bonded many lone pairs of e are on many equivalent molecular orbitals atomic O

f.Draw the hybrid orbitals for O in COg.Fill in the e for O in COh.

Compare the Lewis structure witatomic orbitals E molecular orbitals E atomic orbitals E molecular orbitals E Bonds made with hybridized orbitals are called (sigma) bonds.

All single bonds are -bonds.

Bonds made with unhybridized p orbitals are called (pi) bonds.

In multiple bonds (= or ) one bond is a -bond and the others are -bonds.Sigma bonds result from the end-to-end overlap of hybridized orbitals.

The bonding electrons are held directly between the two nuclei.

Pi bonds result from the side-to-side overlap of p orbitals.

The bonding electrons are held above and tetrahedronstructure.

The unhybridized -bond and a lone pair of eorbitals on each N form two
bond angle lone pair e

a.

How many sp32 hybridized atoms -bonds are present ermined.

The formal charge is an indication of the electron density at the at6.Assign formal charges to all of the

a.

b.

c.d.Based on the chemical nature of these elements, which is the worst e.

Which is the best structure, and why? 7.What is the most stable bonding pattern for

bonds

lone pair ea.

C

b.N.
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